Project Technological Research (54 pages) conducted by Christophe Martz to ENSAIS and sustained late January 2001.
This is a study of congestion in urban centers and taking stock of different technological or organizational solutions that could improve air quality and the conditions of traffic in urban centers.
He leaves a unanimous conclusion: the organization and behavior of citizens are as important as the search for new means of propulsion. Unfortunately this does not seem to be the priority of the major manufacturers that tend to make vehicles more and more heavy and powerful (While on 300 000 km traveled by a car during his lifetime, approximately 200 000 are in urban or peri-urban)
Note: This study was conducted between October and January 2000 2001, it is obviously possible that some information is not topical given the different progress since.
Introduction of the study
The cities currently meet most of human activity is this concentration of activities therefore jobs which explains the constant rural exodus of recent years 200. The countryside is emptying giving birth to urban concentrations increasingly widespread. Many Geo-Political Institutes announce rightly the huge development Megacities, with more than 20 million inhabitants, for the next century. This tendency is more characteristic of industrialized countries, where urban mushrooms gathers around the old cities, but the developing countries have in recent decades the same phenomenon of rural exodus. He creates in these countries very extensive urban areas, based on the American model spaced.
Rural deserts contrast with the hectic activity of urban centers. The aging rural population reinforces this rural desertification. The rise of the Internet, via telecommuting, could give life to these deserted regions? The concentrations of urban populations incredibly difficult, we will limit ourselves to the transport.
Urban activities require large transportation population, the centers of cities are saturated as well as transport by the population. The dwellings in the center cities are expensive and there is insufficient space to live near their workplace. The people therefore migrate outside the center to create suburbs and crowns to tens of km from the center. The construction of huge areas of dense housing near the limit activities that require movement but I doubt that in France the dormitory towns based on the Asian model emerge, and happily!
The urban population has to move regularly and systematically more or less important. The problems caused by these displacements are many but can be summarized in the word saturation: saturation sea lanes and air.
This study focuses on this saturation by trying to explain how and why urban movement became so difficult, we will look at the serious harm they cause. We will see the steps taken by politicians and builders. Then we will discuss the various existing solutions and future which are proving to be very promising, always keeping in mind the need to reconcile price, speed and ease.