International Building and Energy comparison. high thermal performance transparent walls in Northern Europe. CSTB Prebat, ADEME, PUCA
paper on the ongoing research and development on the sashes and window to improve their thermal and acoustic performance. (U National and Local Context
This is in Northern Europe (Scandinavia) and Central (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) as the development of transparent walls (windows and windows - windows + frames) with a high performance thermal insulation (U
- a harsh climate and a long cold season
- strong energy dependence in relation to foreign countries (with the possible exception of Norway which still has developed a program of building low energy consumption: the Smart Energy Efficient Building project - SmartBygg)
- a high cost of provision of energy (transport, distribution networks)
- a strong awareness of environmental issues
- codes of little descriptive building, often open to innovation
- a commitment by public authorities at national or local level (national specific R & D programs with large budgets, local initiatives to promote environmentally friendly solution and with good energy efficiency). Locally, certain actions are undertaken to combine energy efficiency and environmental aspects. The budgets for these activities can be very significant on the scale of some countries (eg Austria)
- the presence of labels or certification device (Passivhaus, Minergie) to signal the energy performance of buildings and structures. These devices unite groups lobbying and promotion of energy efficiency and promote the realization of demonstrations operations.
Moreover, in most of these resources and environmental constraints of managing countries emerging as major technological development of engines that reduce the energy requirements of buildings. In addition, all these countries have committed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gas (Kyoto).
Locally, as in Austria, where tourism is an important resource, preservation of nature leads to a collective awareness on the need to conserve energy, which remains the largest producer of greenhouse gas (GHG) that either at the generation, transmission and consumption.
In most countries, the development of windows and windows with high thermal performance is limited. The choice of installing high performance joinery rest of the voluntary sector: national or local regulations are not binding and do not impose
performance levels involving windows and windows with high thermal performance (U
- Passiv haus (Austria)
- Minergie (Swiss France)
These labels today require high levels of performance (0,8 W / m2 K) and shall, industrial window to offer suitable products.
In addition, professional associations and environmentalists are promoting energy saving and high energy performance to policy makers.
In most countries, incentive mechanisms to save energy were established. The incentive takes the form of bonuses or tax credits. In the United States, the installation of high-performance windows labeled Energy Star allows to benefit from 10% of tax credit of the purchase price, with a maximum of $ 200.