Gross Vegetable Oil sector: problematic. Yves LUBRANIÉCKI
Keywords: greenhouse, extreme poverty, depletion of oil resources, pure vegetable oil used for energy, agriculture
Currently, humanity is facing three of the most massive dangers she faced from birth:
1 - increasing greenhouse squarely jeopardizes biodiversity because of the speed of climate change,
2 - the end of oil, while the whole world economy is built on oil,
3 - the imbalance increasingly unbearable between rich and poor countries, beyond the unacceptable human, generates geopolitical tensions crescendo all around the world.
The crucial point of these difficulties is access to energy. However, only a source of energy today brings good answers to these questions: "pure vegetable oil" (HVP), also called "crude vegetable oil" (HVB).
Indeed, use of unmodified vegetable oil instead of part, the largest possible fossil fuel enables significant improvements due to stabilization of the greenhouse effect, thanks to the implementation of an economy that conserves non-renewable fuel reserves and through the development of a healthy economy in poor countries.
There are however three essential conditions to ask in advance, otherwise the remedy may deteriorate even more quickly the natural environment.
Despite the progress of a certain awareness for forty years, the environmental threat has continued to refine and amplify particular in three forms:
1ère threat: The effect of Serre
Today, and since only a few years, people have begun to realize the danger that is specific by its comprehensiveness. It extends to the whole planet and threatens all species by changing their environment by modifying already committed, comprehensive and too fast of earthling climate. This is an increase of the greenhouse effect.
Its cause is of biblical simplicity, essentially since the industrial revolution of 1850, man rejects without count in the atmosphere and in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) the carbon that the plants fixed during 300 millions of years to make what we call "fossil fuels": coal, natural gas and oil. CO2 is one of the most voluminous greenhouse gases and there is no "clean" fossil fuel. If fossil carbon is put in at the inlet, the same amount of fossil carbon is produced at the outlet, whatever may be done.
A number, just to illustrate: 6 billion tons of emissions of manmade CO2 in 1950, 22 billion in 1989, 24 2000 billion (Source: US Department of Energy ).
With, among others, 8% or more of annual growth rates of China and India in addition to those of the United States, Eastern Europe, Brazil, Turkey, etc., the phenomenon is not about to be reversed given that roughly an economic growth point results in an increase of one point of energy demand and therefore release CO2.
2ème threat: lack of oil.
Experts begin to express strong fears about when the oil will start to run out. Thus, we are crossing a first milestone: the one where, finally, the demand volume exceeds the volume of discoveries of new reserves .
The next cap, known as "peak oil" is one where demand for oil will definitely exceed supply. This fateful date is constantly shifting according to expertise, but more and more clearly, it seems to be approaching in a threatening way for the world economy . In any case, it remains 5 years or 100 years of oil does not change the fact that to this day we do not know to answer the question: "By what will we replace the oil?".
3ème threat: extreme poverty
At the same time, the difference between rich and poor countries is markedly improving between North and Asia or between North and South America, but remains obstinately intolerable between North and Africa. It does not "remain" unbearable, it continues to worsen with, in particular, the countries of West Africa, Central Africa or East Africa blocked in an incompatible health, administrative and political situation with the slightest hope of development in the short or even medium term. With 25,4 million HIV-positive (source: UNAIDS). In addition, the official Roll Back Malaria agency notes that "economists attribute malaria to an annual growth deficit of up to 1,3% in some African countries" . Imagine the growth of France amputated by one per cent by a single disease!
There is no abusive pessimistic load in the three observations is no longer disputed by experts worthy of the name. It remains to wait for specific policy decisions to make a little serenity to the future of our children and theirs.
Of course, given the economic stakes involved, many people propose the best solution, not to the situation, but to their interests. They thus totally ignore the dangers that their irresponsible attitude makes "for real" run to humanity.
Yet there is a solution ...
A solution capable of providing a good response to three threats outlined above: pure vegetable oil sector.
This involves using the unmodified vegetable oil, simply decanted, degummed and filtered 3 microns, instead of fuel oil or diesel in diesel fuel usage or fuel use with an oil burner for heating.
In all these applications (this does not concern the gas sector), vegetable oil perfectly replaces oil.
Just today, it is not possible directly on a massive scale would require some very simple technical changes to the devices used. For example, in some slightly older cars with Bosch injection pump and indirect injection, 100% can use sunflower oil or rapeseed oil without modification (maybe just install a small oil heating system for 'winter).
Most conventional diesel vehicles can use up to 50% sunflower oil, rapeseed without major modification. Most modern engines require the most significant developments. They should be designed from the outset to run on vegetable oil. This is neither more nor less complicated than is done today for operation with oil.
Especially since the work of Dr. Ludwig Elsbett, a German engineer who, in 80 years, had invented and developed a perfectly flex diesel engine oil and all existing oils, pure or mixed in any proportion ( 2000 used vegetable oils are identified around the planet).
It is essentially for political reasons that this engine, Whose performance was comparable to the latest common rail high-pressure diesel today, has never been produced industrially. Today, it is necessary for humanity to see manufacturers take these ideas to produce finally on a large scale.
In Germany, auto mechanics alter demand vehicles to enable them to use the crude vegetable oil as fuel. This is allowed in Germany but not in France. However, since May 8 2003, a European Directive (ID: 2003 / 30 / EC) allows Member States to give this permission . But to date, this is still not done in France. What difference can therefore well justified this French attitude?
Therefore thus defend the use vegetable oil instead of oil?
First, we must remember and keep in mind that the most useful energy deposit and smartest is the energy savings, nothing should be done in this area without first optimizing the use Energy.
But, it quickly finds a limit when one reads the figures of the growth rates of the Asian countries or the North American consumption. While economies are extremely effective everywhere, they will not change much of the problem; just a few years or even a few decades, but they will have relatively little effect on the greenhouse effect and will not affect the extreme poverty of some countries.
Also, subject to observance of the three preconditions set out below, we can recommend very strongly the massive use of crude vegetable oil because it provides a simple and effective answer to the three threats outlined above.
1 - As regards the greenhouseThe fact of using an unmodified plant fuel ensures a balance between the carbon fixed by the plant during its maturation and carbon emissions in the atmosphere associated with combustion. We go to a carbon of the annual cycle and, in total, there are more increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
2 - As regards the lack of oilThe fact of using an unmodified vegetable sector allows to consider the use of this fuel for the entire chain, starting the culture spill fuel into the tank of the vehicle or the burner. No need for oil from one end to the other of the chain.
Today, it is not the case, when we talk about "biodiesel", we talk about methyl ester of vegetable oil. First, it is cultivated with the use of oil in cultivation, collection and transport equipment, and then distribution. Then it is forced by fertilizers very fossil energy-intensive and releasing themselves to the use of nitrous oxide which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Finally, it is obtained by heating (much energy required) the oil under pressure (much energy required) in the presence of an alcohol (much energy needed to produce it). So, if we make the total ecobalance of the use of this "modified oil", we find that it is extremely disappointing.
It would be immeasurably easier to change the origin, manufacture, engines or burners so they can consume directly and either pure oil or oil or a mixture of both. although it is understood not pose any technical problem (except to insist on not wanting to settle), but only a political problem.
Yes or no, will we accept to leave our grandchildren a world without oil with a climate seriously and permanently unhinged or will we use this simple technology to access and use?
3 - Regarding the fight against extreme povertyThe cultivation of oilseeds is possible almost all climates, that is to say, in all latitudes. This is a major difference with the oil that is not, far from it, evenly distributed around the planet. It is this parsimony in the distribution of oil sites that is the source of all the geopolitical complications that humanity lives since oil is king. How many millions of men and women of this planet have they seen their life, freedom or dignity sacrificed in the name of access to God the richest oil?
What if there was another way? This is a path that makes many countries, including some very poor, the poorest, energy-wealth-producing countries. A way to reduce considerably the notion of energy dependency since many countries, starting with ours, would become producers, even energy traders, more "shock" to be feared.
The idea here is to supplement our European production by developing as much as possible the oilseed, some of which are very productive, in the now unused land. These crops could provide jobs and income to people currently suffering from poverty without jeopardizing the standard of living and employment in rich countries.
For once, there would be no conflict, but complementarity of interests between North and South.
In our reasoning, one liter of oil weighs about 920 grams.
The most productive oilseed in the world is the Guinean palm (Elaeis guineensis). Per year, it produces at least 3 500 liters of palm oil per hectare and another advantage, it sets several tons of CO2 per year per hectare during 25 years. It obviously grows in warm climates and requires water to produce well. If used as a bit theoretical reference, to fix ideas: to replace a quarter of 3,5 billion tons of oil that the man currently consumes annually, there should be 3 million Km2 culture is about 5,5 times the area of France.
In Europe, rapeseed or sunflower to give about 8 900 liters per year per hectare and the arrival of our twelve new European partners will dramatically change the situation in the matter because some have large agricultural areas and they will have to review their practices in light of the common agricultural Policy to come. These changes, combined with an energy policy that showcases the pure vegetable oil, allow the cultivation of hundreds of thousands of hectares of oilseed.
In poor countries, already such surfaces - even hectares numbering in the millions - are either left fallow for lack of markets for particular culture or ravaged by deforestation or burning and doomed to abandoned because of the disappearance of humus necessary for culturing.
All these lands could be used for the cultivation of certain oilseeds as well productive jatropha which will present the added advantage of (re) establish a humus and value and these abandoned land or in the process of being (scientific name jatropha curcas L. is jatropha - 650 800 to liters per hectare ).
Here as there, all the oil produced there will be a trade: either locally, the village or the city produces its own energy (in both senses), either nationally or internationally, farmers organized in co-operative supplying a vast market of oil energy that drives either vehicles or thermal plants here and there. Do not forget that this sector can work with oil from one end to the other with the result: very little waste gases greenhouse during operation.
3 sine qua non
These ideas seem immediately attractive, but they are the only three cumulative mandatory conditions. Only one of these conditions is not met and the change is not possible.
1 condition technical conditions, financial and political :
At first glance, this seems like record holder of interests opposed to those of oil, but actually it is not so for two reasons: the first is that sooner or later they will be forced to heartbreaking conversions and die pure vegetable oil is the means by far, the least different and less traumatic for them to pass the obstacle. Vegetable oil is the product that most oil looks like. The second is that the business of selling oil is the closest to a job that does not yet exist in the world: sale of energy vegetable oil. (Because the industry does not exist, we can not talk about price today: there is no demand, so there is no offer, so there is no . the prices oils sold today are not purely energy, so they present specifications - thus production costs and marketing - not those of future energy oils).
The oil has the equipment and expertise and put in the circuit is the best way to get their cooperation instead of opposition. We can also say the same thing for cruets.
If we want the system to work, it must follow the same quality that we know for oil or for food or industrial oil. Only these professionals are able to work until the issue in a timely success.
There maybe instead of asking them to think, with engine, a product composed of a mixture of different unmodified oils with an energy potential and followed a fluidity that would be comparable worldwide.
A bit like with oil today, we could optimize the products for different types of uses: a - road vehicles and small boats or ships, b - means trains and boats or ships, aircraft diesel piston engine, c - large ships and diesel power plants, thermal power plants and, finally, - jets. It may be that the future of oil ...
For this system to be put in place, it also requires essential collaboration of politicians as they have the legitimacy to impose international solutions. It is their job to fix the local taxation will determine the consumer prices.
This system also requires the collaboration of financial because they have the means to fund the necessary investments.
The second and third following conditions must be a mandatory legal requirement for the validity of each supply contract and must be recorded in a written specification which must accompany the delivery.
If the specification is not duly respected, it is not necessary that the delivery takes place. If we do not follow a procedure as legally binding, it must not implement the ideas in this note (This particular point is in line with the spirit of Directive 2003 / 30 / EC mentioned above. see for example: Art 4 2 Point Point)..
2 provided an agricultural condition.
If this condition is not fulfilled, not only the change is not possible, but it is not even desirable because the remedy would be worse than the disease. It's the same thing if we practice deforestation to plant oilseeds. It is better to continue with fossil fuels, the destruction will also be inevitable, but a little slower ...
For the above reason that the use of chemicals in agriculture is huge amounts of greenhouse gas generator, it is absolutely imperative that the farming methods used in the production of oilseeds do call for an agriculture concept durable (that is to say that conserves resources and avoids chemicals). Or, at a minimum, farming (chemicals are used, but only when necessary and only the amount needed), otherwise the remedy will be worse than the disease.
One could also mention the "integrated" agriculture is a concept where the farm approach is global. It takes into account the interactions between different species grown near each other to minimize the use of chemical inputs and increase the beneficial effect of the complementarity of natural processes them .
A resource seems promising and is currently the subject of study in several US universities, it is oil micro algae (diatoms). They contain large amounts of oil would have an opportunity to harvest at a very fast pace and would require little surface for a big performance .
In any event, the elements to provide maximum protection at the highest international political level are: water, air, soil, biodiversity and landscapes because they are the natural commons most valuable to humanity.
3 condition a commercial condition.
These proposals would miss half of their goal if they did not result in a significant improvement of the plight of the poorest of the Earth population.
A human worthy of this name must no longer accept to live comfortably on the same planet as billions of men and women who do not even have the minimum subsistence and die every year millions of extreme poverty. This is all the more intolerable since there is now the present idea that guarantees both the essential living standards of the richest and the access to a "real life" for the poorest knowing that the " real life "is not necessarily the transition to rock'n roll and brownish soda ...
To achieve this, it is essential that the collection and trade of oilseeds and oils are organized according to the rules of fair trade, otherwise the stated aim of development of poor countries will not be achieved and the differences will only increase.
Encourage poor countries to become producers and exporters of wealth (on their behalf) is probably smarter and more useful than just give them subsidies, even important.
To sustainably steer the planet to this solution, we must launch today a movement of opinion which generates enough pressure on policy to understand that we can not wait.
We are changing era.
We are leaving a time when the technocrats were looking for ways to move the "vegetable oil" line under the oil palm forks of King Petroleum.
We will soon enter a new era where the world's primary source of energy in transport and heating will be pure vegetable oil and when oil will have to adapt to its requirements.
We must look at this as a second chance that nature gives us. To us not make the same mistakes with the deification of oil and we optimize the resource and financial gains for the future of our descendants. It is our responsibility. Pure vegetable oil is neither a king nor a god. This is an excellent tool for sustainable development, that's all.
 http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/index.html and "FAQ".
See: paragraphs # 9, 12 #, # 22, 27 # and art. 2 2 points j and art. 3 2 point a dot.
 EU report on agricultural biodiversity
 On this subject, see this page
Read more: excellent .pdf of the same author.