Waste of energy
Many processes of transformation of thermal energy into mechanical energy (usable) have emerged in the various fields of human activity:
-For transport: pistons reciprocating engine largely predominates (with all possible variations in the arrangement of piston and piston same movement), the industrial application of rotary engines remains anecdotal (although Mazda has won the 1992 Mans thanks to a Wankel engine)
-for the production of electricity: steam turbine (or gas turbine), the steam is heated by boilers.
-for aviation: the gas turbine playing on the compression and expansion of the combustion gas to create thrust.
All these thermal energy conversion systems in mechanical energy, distinct and existing technologies for several decades have, without exception, a maximum performance (fuel consumption) of about 35% ...
It is legitimate to wonder about the low efficiency of these systems, based on old thermodynamic principles. These systems really "spoil" the 2 / 3 thermal energy consumed. That is to say that on 100 frs fuel consumed in your vehicle, 70frs are wasted heat losses (heat).
Performance diagram of a reciprocating engine currently used in automobiles. Ps: performance of a diesel engine is slightly higher, hence a lower consumption of diesel engines.
Before oil resources are depleted, such a waste of energy is no longer acceptable, indeed: oil production appears to peak during the mid 1990 years (as shown in the following document). Some other studies place this peak in the middle of the 2000-2010 decade.
Despite this, it should be understood that the price increase has not yet been felt because the price of oil depends more on political-economic notions of the actual cost of extraction. (2 4 to $ barrel from Saudi Arabia).
Note that the daily consumption of mankind would amount, in 2002, about 75 million barrels. This compares to the loss from fire Saddam oil well in 1991: 66 over Million barrels of 6 Month. And it was considered an ecological and economic disaster for all the world media ...
In addition, much of the Western economy (except, perhaps, the United State has made over 2 years of reserves and resources have not negligible) is dependent on the OPEC (Organization of Exporting Countries Oil). Such dependence is dangerous (see the oil crises of 1973 and 1979). On the other hand, this dependence makes economic hegemony of industrialized countries and consumers, all subject to a uniform energy prices. As against the current taxation of oil makes it very difficult the emergence of developing countries. In this sense, if oil is a source of local conflict (in producer countries ... 80% of current conflicts in the world are of petroleum origin), its energy monopole is guarantor of world peace.
to be noticed more, as electricity, energy 2ieme the twentieth century occurred in 60% from fossil energy (and the USA now always up to 80%).
Experts estimate that there are about 50 years of oil reserves (in absolute terms, given the evolution of consumption and new discoveries) ... But do not confuse reserves and exploitable resources, although the rate extraction from oil new technology is increasingly high.
It is time for humanity saves fossil fuel and industrial and organizations taking quick action, technological and behavioral rationalization. Companies have long neglected the environmental cost and energy savings under the pretext of a cost-effective in the short term.
It's time to apply what the big schools are so good at teaching us: a global vision and long-term investments.