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Company and PhilosophyFrançois Roddier, thermodynamics and society

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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby Janic » 10/06/17, 11:00

Janic wrote:
It is not a problem of energy I have to resell and if I judge by your multiple interventions it is also your case ... to say nothing!

I tell you that you "participate" (I would prefer another term ...) to a subject concerning François Roddier on which in my humble opinion you knew absolutely nothing.

I have already told you: Roddier's speeches did not connect me at his conference, by you quoted. So there is no question of doing as if I were interested in it and still less make believe that I know it.
Moreover, the development that has been done here (mainly with Ahmed) is not verbiage as you do.

Unfortunately, you confuse grammatical form and sense and Ahmed (to him to confirm it or not) insisted on the meaning and to that extent he is right.
During a police investigation, the investigator is justified in believing that such suspicion of an alleged offender is obviously guilty, but it is not enough to actually make him a culprit. It is in his logic of sense if he then uses a present. But a strong conviction (which is expressed by a present) has no value in the courts; That is why a suspect can no longer be considered guilty BEFORE judgment and therefore in the eyes of the judges, of the defense, the present can not be invoked as a prosecution. This is what I have done by referring to what may be called a precautionary principle necessary to avoid deviance, not of the scientist himself who knows what he is talking about, but of the following popular, popular, Which zapped too easily (the case of AIDS evoked, which everyone can verify on the videos of the speech of the minister in question) that this is only a hypothesis, an unverified theory.
But the building cracks, cracks in the passing time (and history is not in a hurry) and the populations gradually realize,
The edifice is indeed cracked and for a long time the populations have actually realized that the world had not been created in 6 days and that the stories about genesis were myth.

This is a discourse of belief in something other than that held by its philosophical opponents. So worthless!
Of course, but where do we find scientists from agrochemical, chemical medoc, nuclear, questioning their business,

The same goes for Jehovah's Witnesses!

Exactly, TJs are not a reference, but a theological point of view. But they, at least, have studied what others do not even give themselves the honesty to do to give an incompetent opinion. (For your instruction the TJ do not speak days but periods.) But it does not answer my question: "Where do we find scientists from agrochemicals, chemical medicines, nuclear power, questioning their business? " We could include all the professions.
The difference is that science is based on reality.

A real unknown to all, even TJ or Texans and no more evolutionists since no one was present to certify this supposed reality. So everything else is interpreted according to the elements held by each (as in the cases where the defense and the accusation have opposing points of view and elements of the real in their hands).
You drink the words of Roddier like those of the Pope because each one finds there the echo of his expectations, his beliefs; (Which is the right of everyone), but neither Roddier nor the Pope are universal references.

I do not drink anything at all, and I remind you that the work of F.Roddier is the result of a synthesis resulting from the work of S.Carnot, L.Boltzmann, BaK, Statinopoulos, Prigogine (among others! Almost everything ...

I do not discuss this aspect, everyone has the right to take for reference whoever he wants, I only notice that you drink these words like whey as the TJ with their references ...From their synthesis of theologians , Usually not part of their movement and Which you do not even know,. It's too easy this kind of argument!

[*] Like you in theology, which does not prevent you from mixing your grain of salt with null examples.
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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 10/06/17, 20:17

Janic you wrote:

I have already told you: Roddier's speeches did not connect me at his conference, by you quoted. It is therefore not a question of acting as if I were interested in it And still less to make believe that I know myself.


It is still very coffee to come to participate in a topic that does not interest you!
In that case, I will be grateful to you for not participating.
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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby Janic » 11/06/17, 08:50

Janic you wrote:
I have already told you: Roddier's speeches did not connect me at his conference, by you quoted. So there is no question of doing as if I were interested in it and still less make believe that I know it.

It is still very coffee to come to participate in a topic that does not interest you!
You participate well in subjects where you do not know anything about it as in biblical theology, on the H, the vaccines, the GL which are subjects that connect me, they!
In that case, I will be grateful to you for not participating.
Unfortunately for you you can not help me, even if it is my only and only intervention on this subject for a long time and again without discussing the substance but just the form used, which is not your case on those who Just plug me in.
But I am open to the multiplicity of opinions, including, and above all, contradictory opinions, some of which do not even deprive themselves of lies and counter-truths, but it is part of the game in a forum and it is even its interest .
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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 30/07/17, 11:48

113 - A Probable Origin of Life
26 July 2017GeneralFrançois Roddier

[The text below is the French translation of a research proposal I submitted, to study the origin of life using the DECLIC experiment on board the space station]

First attempts at study

According to Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmary (1), the first serious study of the origin of life is due to AI Oparin (1924) and JBS Haldane (1929). Their argument was that if the primitive atmosphere lacked free oxygen, a wide variety of organic compounds could have been synthesized using energy provided by ultraviolet light and flash discharges.

In 1953, on the advice of Harold Urey, Stanley Miller tested this hypothesis by causing electrical discharges through an enclosure containing water, methane and ammonia. It produced a wide variety of organic compounds, including nucleotides with RNA and DNA.

However, essential molecules were absent or were obtained only in very low concentrations. Above all, the reactions produced lacked specificity, making it difficult to understand how polymers with very specific chemical bonds could be formed.

In a series of articles published between 1988 and 1992, Günter Wächtershäuser suggested that reactions could occur between ions fixed on a charged surface. The attraction between charges of opposite signs causes the ions in solution to attach to charged surfaces. They can move slowly on the surface, while maintaining the same orientation, which greatly increases both the speed and the specificity of the chemical reactions.

Researchers have recently shown that the confinement of molecules in small drops of liquid significantly improves the rate of reactions, suggesting applications in prebiotic chemistry (2). These results confirm hydrothermal sources as a possible origin of life, but no mention is made of the critical point of water (3).

Self-organization and criticality

During these 50 last years, evidence has accumulated that the processes of self-organization take place when forces of attraction balance repulsive forces. They are of the same nature as the continuous phase transitions observed in fluids in a state of critical opalescence at the so-called critical temperature. This analogy was first recognized by Per Bak et al. (4), in relation to the omnipresence of the noise in 1 / f. They called this process "self-organized criticality".

A typical example is the formation of stars in astrophysics. The instability of Jeans which allows the stars to form is indeed of the same nature as that which causes the critical opalescence. In both cases, density fluctuations follow a power law (1 / f noise), as shown by the distribution of the initial masses of the new stars.

In his book "The Self-Organizing Universe" Erich Jantsh (5) showed that the whole universe self-organizes itself following similar sequences of events. A slow "macroevolution" during which large structures condense alternate with a rapid "microevolution" during which new elementary constituents are formed. Figure 1 summarizes this process. Following this pattern, the formation of stars is part of the macroevolution. It triggers the formation of new atoms such as those of helium which are heavier than those of hydrogen. The formation of helium is part of microevolution.
Image
Fig. 1. The self-organization of the universe after Eric Jantsch (1980)

Following Per Bak, the Jantsch macroevolution can be considered as a continuous phase transition and its microevolution as an abrupt phase transition, in other words the evolution of the whole universe can be seen as a process oscillating around a " A "critical point" (see Figure 2).

Self-organization and energy dissipation

Ilya Prigogine has shown that self-organization is a categorization of dissipative structures, that is, structures that appear spontaneously in the presence of a permanent flow of energy. Living beings or Bardard's cells are dissipative structures.

The dissipative structures behave like thermal machines: they use temperature differences to produce mechanical work. According to the second principle of thermodynamics known as the Carnot principle, this is possible only following cycles of transformations. The first thermal machines used the liquid-vapor transition of water to obtain large variations in volume.

Automotive engines are more efficient because they use much larger temperature differences to produce the same volume variations. However, much lower temperature variations are sufficient to produce natural thermal machines such as Bénard cells. This is particularly true near the critical point where very low temperature differences produce very large variations in volume.

The critical point of water

The critical pressure of the water is 220 bars and its critical temperature 374 ° C. In saline water as in the ocean, the critical point is a little more than 2.200 m deep, while at hydrothermal sources the temperature readily exceeds 374 ° C.

Consider the water of a hydrothermal source located below 2.200m and whose temperature is somewhat higher than 374 ° C. Its density being less than that of the surrounding water, it forms a convective pen. During his ascent, his pressure goes down. Its temperature remains a moment superior to that of its environment until, when it becomes colder, it descends towards the source, closing the convective loop. At some point, the water reaches the condensation zone. Fine droplets form. The liquid water is then converted slowly and continuously into steam water without ever forming bubbles.
Image
Fig. 2. The above surface shows the state of the water around the critical point.
The gray area is the condensation zone.

Figure 2 shows the state of water in a convective feather when describing a circle around the critical point, as indicated by the arrow. While the transition from liquid to gaseous state is continuous, the transition from gaseous state to liquid state is abrupt. Periodically, water condenses to form fine droplets of liquid water that grow until the water becomes completely liquid. It then sinks towards the hydrothermal source where it is heated above the critical temperature. It is then continuously transformed into vapor, without ever forming gaseous bubbles.

Condensation of the gas in liquid near the critical point is called "critical opalescence". There are very large fluctuations in density, a condition favorable to the formation of microdroplets. In the ocean other molecules can also condense. The polar molecules will retain the same orientation with respect to the surface of the droplet, thus promoting polar bonds. These conditions are particularly favorable to the formation of complex organic molecules.

An opportunity to test the origin of life

Although the conditions described above are suitable for the formation of complex organic molecules, the likelihood of such reactions occurring remains low unless the same situation occurs over a very long period of time.

It can be roughly estimated that the water circulation time in a convective feather is of the order of the day, while the lifetime of an active submarine volcano is of the order of one million d years. The same conditions have thus been able to reproduce several hundred thousand times. It is clear that if we want to repeat this process in the laboratory, it must be considerably accelerated.

The DECLIC experience offers such an opportunity. DECLIC is an experiment aboard the International Space Station. One of the versions aims at the study of chemical reactions in the vicinity of the critical point of water. Its weightless environment makes it possible to produce the critical conditions uniformly over its entire volume with an accuracy of three decimal places. It should be possible to adjust these conditions so as to describe circles around the critical point in a few seconds instead of a few days. Compared to the conditions at the origin of life, this would accelerate the process by at least 5 orders of magnitude, probably more as the conditions of the experiment would be constantly kept very close to the critical point.

If it is possible to monitor the chemical composition of the reaction chamber as a function of time, one should be able to reproduce within a few months and observe chemical reactions that took millions of years to occur. We strongly suggest that such an experiment be put on the DECLIC program.

François Roddier

1John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmary, The Origins of Life, Oxford (1999).
2 Ali Fallah-Araghi et al. Enhanced Chemical Synthesis at Soft Interfaces: A Universal Reaction-Adsorption Mechanism in Microcompartments.
3K. Ruiz-Mirazo, C. Briones, and A. de la Escosura, Prebiotic Systems Chemistry: New Perspectives of the Origins of Life, Chem. Rev. 114, 285 (2013).
4 Per Bak, Chao Tang and Kurt Wiesenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality: An Explanation of 1 / f Noise, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, vol. 59 (1987)
5 Erich Jantsch, The Self-Organizing Universe, Pergamon (1980).

[This proposal is supported by Roger Bonnet, former ESA Scientific Director].


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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 13/10/17, 15:18

115 - "The question of the monthly" The Decay "
5 October 2017GeneralFrançois Roddier

In its October issue the newspaper "The Decay" asks the following question:

"Formerly, inspired by the Meadows Report or Bernard's writings
Charbonneau, René Dumont and André Gorz, we already knew the main causes of the degradation of life on Earth and could, from this time and internationally, reorient public policies towards sustainability. Today, it is too late, the collapse is imminent. This is what the former minister Yves Cochet wrote in a column published by the daily newspaper Drahi and Ledoux this summer (Libération, 23 août 2017). But is it so sure? If humanity knew of the stalemate of growth, would it have been able to turn around? Do ideas and "awareness-raising" suffice to radically change the course of events, to abandon the race for power and move towards "sustainability"?

After having recalled what is the process of self-organized criticality, I give below my own answer.

Self-organized criticality

Warmer on the side lit by the Sun than the other, the Earth is naturally in thermal imbalance. The laws of physics dictate that the temperature of the Earth becomes uniform. Physicists say that energy dissipates there.

Atmospheric and oceanic currents are organized to transport heat from the equator to the poles. During the day, the water that evaporates stores heat that makes the night condensing. Vegetation speeds up the process. Trees go underground with their roots. Their leaves facilitate evaporation. Insects help plants to reproduce by carrying their pollen. Animals help vegetation by fertilizing the soil with their waste. Today, physicists believe that life has developed on Earth to dissipate energy.

In 1969, Ilya Prigogine introduced the notion of dissipative structure. An ecosystem or a human society are dissipative structures. By dissipating energy, they change their environment to a critical point from which they tend to collapse. In the presence of energy, new structures replace them. Danish physicist Per Bak called this process "self-organized criticality".

Economists have highlighted cycles of the order of 50 years called Kondratiev cycles. Historians Peter Turchin and Sergey A. Nefedov have highlighted even longer cycles that they call secular. Their period is of the order of 200 to 300 years They distinguish four phases that qualify in the order of depression, expansion, stagflation and crisis. During the crisis phase, a new society is organized. The longer the oscillation period, the greater the magnitude of the crisis: it is called collapse.

By collapsing, ecosystems cause species extinctions. Biologist Jay Gould spoke of punctuated equilibria because their evolution is punctuated by extinctions. An animal society that exhausts its environment tends to emigrate. In the past, many human societies have emigrated. Island societies such as Polynesian companies have had more difficulties. The case of the inhabitants of Easter Island was famous because, having cut down their trees, they could not emigrate. The question asked is why did they not notice what they were doing and, if some people realized, why did not they warn others in time?

A similar process is found in Western civilizations, especially Mediterranean civilizations. Everyone knows that one thousand six hundred years ago, the Roman Empire collapsed. The Romans were clearly aware of the difficulties of their economy. Their answer was to expand their empire. It is surprisingly similar to the globalization of today's economies. It only delayed the final collapse. Is the experience of the end of the Roman Empire useless?

We know today that, one thousand six hundred years before the end of the Roman Empire, a similar collapse occurred in the Mediterranean. This is the end of the Bronze Age. This confirms the idea that this is a recurring process. The time is, it seems, that of the Trojan War. Why was Cassandre not listened to?

The collapse of civilizations

A human society is a network of individuals who exchange information, like neurons in the brain. It's a neural network. Per Bak has shown that the process of self-organized criticality applies to neural networks. When a sensory neuron is "excited", it tends to excite the neurons with which it is in contact.

Like neurons, Dennis Meadows and his colleagues are "excited" by their discovery. They seek to convince their interlocutors of the need to intervene. At first it seems easy. Information is spreading easily in their environment aware of environmental problems. For this information to be followed by effect, it must "percolate" to the motor neurons. When a neuron receives information, it compares it to the information it has already memorized. If it does not correspond to his own experience, he will tend to reject it.

We can distinguish 3 types of experience: individual experience, historical experience and religious experience. An economic collapse like the one announced by the Club of Rome does not correspond to any individual experience. The information will therefore be rejected by a majority of individuals. Only a few intellectuals, knowing the collapse of civilization, will be sensitized. It will take them several years to publish books that will attract the attention of the general public.

For its part, the religious experience reaches the general public, but does not appear relevant. The word religion seems to come from the Latin "religare" which means "to connect". Brought by "the scriptures", religious information connects individuals through millennia. The Bible speaks of the apocalypse, Moses of deluge. According to Genesis, man would have been rejected from an earthly paradise. Had the man dissipated too much energy? Was the tree of knowledge that of technical progress? This interpretation seems quite likely today.

Note that only the western part of the Roman Empire collapsed. Nowadays, so-called Eastern Orthodox Christianity seems to be less dissipative of energy than Roman Christendom. Similarly, the Latin culture of South America seems less dissipative of energy than the Anglo-Saxon Nordic culture, whose reformed church has rejected all authority. We must therefore expect that, dissipating more energy than the others, the latter is the first to collapse.

Humanity will then realize that civilizations are mortal. Movements, such as "Decoissance", will finally be understood as reflexes of "satiety", necessary for the survival of society. But it will be too late again.


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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 17/10/17, 00:04

A new and exciting video of François Roddier on the thermodynamics of evolution:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7ErDjEOogg
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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 07/11/17, 19:22

116 - Interconnectivity and robustness during an economic cycle
7 November 2017GeneralFrançois Roddier

My previous post triggered a debate about why the Easter Island civilization collapsed, everyone wondering if a similar fate awaits our own civilization. The classic assumption is that of the environmental impact: they have cut down all their trees. Others blame the development of epidemics due to the arrival of Westerners. But no one seems to question the precise definition of the word "collapse".

We have seen (note 90) that every economic structure, therefore every civilization, describes cycles whose amplitude is inversely proportional to their frequency. The historians Turchin and Nefedov have particularly highlighted cycles they describe as secular whose period is of the order of several hundred years. During each of these cycles, the concerned civilization goes through a so-called crisis phase during which the organization of society changes and the collective behavior of individuals changes.

The description of Easter Island given by Nicolas Cauwe (comment No. 2) fits perfectly with this definition: the civilization of Easter Island would have gone through a phase of crisis. In general, there is talk of collapse when this phase of crisis is accompanied by either a significant drop in the population or splits. In the case of Easter Island, there does not seem to have been a split, but a large demographic decline seems very likely.

I propose to return today to the four phases of the cycles of Turchin and Nefedov to describe them in terms of oscillations of a neural network, that is, oscillations of the global brain that form a human society ( ticket 104). I will start with the phase they describe as stagflation because it is the one that best fits the current state of our western societies. It is also the one that precedes the crisis phase and is therefore likely to lead to a collapse of our societies.

I recall that Per Bak characterizes a neural network by two parameters, the thresholds from which the connections are established and the intensity of the latter, once established. At the beginning of a phase of stagflation, the thresholds of the connections are at the lowest point (ticket 104). This phase is characterized by very numerous connections. Each individual gets in touch with many others. We have seen this with the rapid development of air transport, then that of the Internet and mobile phones.

However, the thresholds increase gradually. The constant increase in solicitations, especially advertising, is that everyone seeks more and more to protect themselves from abusive calls. Throughout the stagflation phase, the intensity of the connections remains low. Although very numerous, the links formed at random encounters are loosened as quickly as they are created. It is found in the case of conjugal ties, by the very high frequency of divorces.

I had promised (97 ticket) to talk again about interconnectivity. I'm coming back today. This notion was developed by biologist Robert Ulanowicz in his study of ecosystems. It is a measure of the degree of information exchange between the various elements of the same ecosystem. He notes this magnitude α. It is between 0 and 1. In the absence of any exchange, the interconnectivity α is equal to 0. When all the elements are interconnected, it is worth 1 (see 86 ticket).

In his publications Ulanowicz describes the quantity α.ln (α) as robustness. It measures the ability of an ecosystem to adapt to changes. It is maximal for α = 1 / e, where e = 2,718 ... is the base of the natural logarithms. The economist Bernard Lietaer has shown that this notion also applies to the economy (1). In my 87 post, I showed that it applies in fact to any dissipative structure considered as neural network. It therefore applies to human societies.

We have seen that the stagflation phase is a very large interconnectivity phase. When the interconnectivity exceeds the 1 / e value, the robustness of the company decreases. Society is all the more fragile as the intensity of the links is very weak. The stagflation phase can be considered as a preparatory phase for a restructuring of society. New links are forming to replace old ones, but the majority of these links are very fragile. Their robustness will be tested during the crisis phase.

The crisis phase follows the stagflation phase. It translates into a brutal restructuring of society and corresponds to what physicists call an abrupt phase transition. I propose to reserve the term collapse in case there are either splits or a drop in demographics.

During the crisis phase, only the connections whose thresholds are sufficiently high remain. The corresponding intensity of the connections is reinforced. This phenomenon can easily be seen in the case of a couple of married people: when a couple experiences a crisis successfully, the couple's relationship is reinforced. When a human society goes through a crisis, its interconnectivity is diminished, but the bonds that remain emerge stronger.

We then enter the phase that Turchin and Nefédov call depression: the society gradually opens to the creation of new links. Initially high, the thresholds of the connections diminish little by little. Then this is the expansion phase that our economists still dream of today.

thresholds and intensities

Polynesian civilizations are particularly suited to this analysis because they have long been isolated from any influence of the internal environment. In particular, I refer the reader to the very first blog post titled "The End of a Civilization", in which I described the story of Mangareva. In general, the history of an island or a Polynesian archipelago regularly follows the same scenario.

The phase that Turchin and Nefédov call "depression" corresponds to the colonization of a new archipelago hitherto uninhabited. At first, life is difficult. The inhabitants are few, but very supportive of each other. In terms of neural network, the intensity of the connections is very high. Then comes in the expansion phase. More and more collaborations are established between individuals and life becomes easier. But the easier it is, the lower the intensity of the connections. During the next phase called stagflation, collaborations are so numerous that they remain superficial. Most are redundant: the neural network percolates too much.

The neurologist Lionel Naccache also compares a human society to a neural network. When a human brain is drowning too much it is the epileptic seizure. A human society that percolates too between crises too. While a sick person loses consciousness, a society collapses.

(1) Bernard Lietaer, Money and Sustainability. The missing link. Triarchy press, 2012.
(2) Lionel Naccache, The networkable man. Odile Jacob, 2015


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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 18/01/18, 18:49

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117 - Evolution of a company during a business cycle
15 January 2018 François Roddier

In my previous post, I developed the analogy between economic cycles as described by Turchin and Nefedov (90 note) and the diurnal cycle of a human brain. In my 101 post, I showed that the political evolution of a society is also related to the functioning of a human brain. It is interesting to juxtapose the two approaches. This is what is done in the figure below. Resuming the previous post, I added Emmanuel Todd's four types of society and the four brain states mentioned in the 101 ticket.


Image
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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby sen-no-sen » 28/01/18, 19:01

Secular cycles and currency


In my previous post, I tried to show that our so-called western, mostly European, companies have just gone through a cycle of 120 years similar to the historical cycles of Turchin and Nefedov ticket 90. Economists generally consider much shorter cycles such as cycles of Kuznets (15 to 25 years) or Kondratiev (40 to 60 years). One plausible reason is that until now they have not had economic data of sufficient duration. The more recent work of Thomas Picketty is changing things.
Image

In his book (1), he shows the capital / income ratio of 1870 to 2010 for three European nations: Germany, France and the United Kingdom. These curves are reproduced here with the indication of the periods crossed. We see that they are very similar, confirming that these three economies have synchronized well, showing the beginning of the phenomenon of globalization.
The first world war corresponds to a sharp drop in the capital / income ratio. The depression phase indicates a slight recovery followed by a new fall linked to the Second World War. The expansion phase, known as the glorious 30, is characterized by a very low capital / income ratio. The stagflation phase corresponds to a rise in the capital / income ratio, without reaching its 1910 values. He could reach them during the current crisis phase.

How to interpret these results? In my 90 post, I identified the age-old cycles of Turchin and Nefedov at cycles around a critical point. The sharp drop in the capital / income ratio from 1910 to 1920 is clearly a steep phase transition. Similarly, the slow rise observed from 1950 to 2010 corresponds to a continuous transition. We can therefore expect another sharp drop in the capital / income ratio by 2040. It is interesting to note that all the peaks identified by the Club of Rome do indeed take place between 2010 and 2040, that is to say during the crisis phase. World economic output is expected to peak at this time. It would be followed by a peak of the population towards 2030. If all goes as planned, the crisis phase will end with a peak of pollution to 2040.

Per Bak compares the process of self-organized criticality to the formation of a pile of sand. Here we can identify the properties of sand with those of money. Just as sand can accumulate to form a pile, money can accumulate to form a heritage. When the slope of the sand pile reaches a certain critical value, then sand avalanches appear, reducing the height of the pile of sand. Similarly, when wealth becomes too high, avalanches of money tend to reduce it. This is what the Picketty curves show.

As Robert Ulanowicz has shown, there is a similar process in ecosystems for which it defines a measure of interconnectivity. In our societies, the fraction of annually capitalized income α could play the role of interconnectivity. Ulanowicz has shown that the robustness of an ecosystem is maximal for α = 1 / e, where e = 2.718 is the base of the natural logarithms. Similarly, the robustness of a company could be maximum when it capitalizes a fraction of its annual income of the order of 1 / e. This means that by capitalizing 2,7's years of income, everyone would be able to support the normal hazards of existence. There would thus be a critical wealth of the order of 2,7 years of income beyond which the risk that some try to cover is no more than that of the collapse of society. But, like the sand that is piled up, the more capital accumulates, the greater the risk of collapse.

It is interesting to note that this condition of stability was approximately realized during the depression phase and that of expansion. By increasing the "slope of the pile of sand", the economic policy designed to combat stagflation that has been conducted since 1980, has naturally led us to a phase of crises.

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Re: François Roddier, thermodynamics and society

Unread Messageby Ahmed » 28/01/18, 21:03

The interpretation of this table is not so simple: it is about income and aggregate assets, which does not shed light on disparities in wages and wealth. As this is a relationship between these two values, each variation of one or the other affects the ratio: from this point of view, I do not find it necessarily the most relevant.
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"Do not believe above all that I tell you."


 


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