internship thesis by Alain ZANARDO. Agro Industrial transformations 2005-2006. University Department of Agen.
Keywords: biofuel, yield, production, comparisons, costs, inputs, fertilizers, flow, impact, CO2, energy balance.
The study of cropping inputs from an energy point of view is the subject of this memoir.
"Energy evaluation of inputs and agricultural and forest production. "
Alternatives to these inputs and their effects on the yields of energy crops will be addressed; The societal aspect focuses on the peasant world will be underlying.
15 energy evaluation of crop inputs for sunflower and corn.
Creating an energy equivalency bank for each input for calculating the energy efficiency of crops.
Application for energy crops:
1) Direct combustion seeds
2) Pure vegetable oil
3) oils Esters
4) Ethanol Fuel
Paralleling ethanol production the USA and France.
This study arose from the virtual meeting with two scientists, one in 1990 when the output of his works on major crops (1972 dice), the other in 2005 when publishing its study on fuel alcohol to USA indicating a lower energy yield 1. A peak for energy production.
Reading the works of Dominique Soltner (DS) 17éme edition of 1990 6 page shows that he knew the work of David Pimentel (DP) quoted by Joël de Rosnay in the Search No. 47 1974 July-August: "Agricultural production: energy balance is deteriorating. " In the edition 2005 it is no longer refers to the DP work.
The work of DP found themselves controversial in January 2006 by Alexander Farrell (AF) which shows that the fuel ethanol production has a yield of 1,2 dice in which we account energy co-products: DDGS-CGF-CGM.
In 2002 ADEME reports a study on the subject with a yield higher than 2.
In December 2005 INRA reports the corrected figures ADEME by the IPCC and we find 1,18 for wheat ethanol and 1,28 for the beet.
In March 2005 an assessment of externalities of corn bioethanol sector in France ECOBILAN results in an energy efficiency 1,35 or 1,88.
Finally in February 2006, one billion euros will be injected by the French government in this sector so controversial by scientists.
Weak energy efficiency of ethanol production from agricultural production is clear. What makes this doubt is closely dependent on the performance with energy inputs used for these productions. An under evaluation or omission may be fatal to the performance; DS is what is written (in 1990) and DP (2005). It is the same for any overstatement of average crop yields and transformation into final energy.
Industrial transformations are not considered nor greenhouse gases.
The quantifications of each input depend on the perpetrators; they are often distant: tradeoffs made in this memory can not be definitive; to when a Hand Book on inputs and agricultural production?