Following trials aviation fuel Makhonine made in 1920 years.
Wings, Weekly Journal of aerial locomotion, Paris Thursday 6 January 1927
Category: French Committee Propaganda Aerospace PARTY OFFICIAL
Tests with the Makhonine fuel
During a meeting of CFPAé Management Committee. Held on 17 December, was presented the report of the tests performed by the Air Union and CIDNA companies with Makhonine fuel. This report was made by M.Verdurand for Air Union and M.Lefranc for CIDNA Commander Ploughman, Deputy Office for Scientific Research, Ministry of the Navy also gave interesting information on trials undertaken in the Navy in 1926. We reproduced Thursday MM communications. Verdurand and Lefranc. They were followed by a presentation by Mr. Makhonine which we publish below the essentials.
The opinion of Makhonine himself
M.Makhonine asked to give some details about the nature of its fuel, and especially its manufacturing capabilities and industrial organization made the following statement:
"My current fuel is derived from coal tar heavy oil débenzolées which I can turn around 90%; the price is not much lower than gasoline because manufacturing is not made in full; now, I can make 50 tonnes per day; on one month's notice, my production would be doubled.
The product, that is its essential merit, is non-flammable temperature and normal pressure. The latest experiences Bourget you have heard the story, seem to me about it, quite convincing.
Nonflammable outside the engine cylinders, my fuel, furthermore, stable and non-volatile.
Its density is much higher than that of gasoline, especially that of the "aviation" type and, nevertheless, experiments have shown that if the setting is done well, the engine produces more power at the same time that we see a gain of about 30% on consumption.
Once properly adjusted carburetor, the combustion is almost complete, leaving no residue that comes spark plug fouling or depositing on the cylinder walls. The pilots who flew with my fuel are unanimous that the lubrication leaves nothing to be desired and that the "times" engine are perfect.
Now consider the economic outlook.
France, not to mention its Colonial matter now, year after year, two million tons of gasoline of various types. As this gas is essentially volatile, it would be interesting to assess how much is lost during all handling, decanting, pumping, etc ...
Given the economy 30% that allows for the use of my fuel, it seems to me it would be enough in practice to 1 million tonnes my fuel to largely replace 2 million tons of gasoline imported from outside, bought with the dollar and that does not stop being a heavy price paid by the country abroad.
therefore There is at first sight a possible dual economy; saving on the amount of fuel: one million tonnes instead of 2 million tonnes and economy managed purchases abroad. As for the wealth created by the manufacture of fuel, even in France, it would be divided within, across the country, and would contribute to the overall well-being.
But this million tonnes "possible" how to get it to the best account?
Currently coal oils are not extracted and wanted for themselves. In gas plants and coking plants, they are simply collected as a byproduct, produced quite interesting probably because the Highways use increasingly tar for road maintenance and prices rise due even demand.
If one wants to get the tar to himself, not in gas plants, or in coking plants need to, because these industries specifically employ coal 6 and 8.000 calories that it is necessary for the purposes of the case, to distill high temperature. To get away with it all the necessary tar is in the same mine that we must go distilling coal. And yet, what coal distill? I demand that the worst, the coal latest quality, which gives only 2.500 to 3.500 calories and 35% ash, which is almost unsaleable, which, last year at this time, was offered to 45 francs per ton on car-starting with a discount of 4 fr. 50 per tonne for all market of over 10.000 tonnes to be delivered per year; this coal finally that, if it continues to search for, actually give up the vein to look elsewhere.
There, how would this coal? low temperature distilled 5 tons of this waste coal will give a little more than a ton of tar, so about a ton of fuel. Hence it follows that to ensure the production of one million tonnes of fuel needed to the annual consumption of France, it would take only 5 million tonnes of this waste coal, or, in round numbers, 416.700 tons per month and 16.670 tonnes per working day on average. Is it impossible to achieve?
The coal-mining regions of France are wonderfully spread to the North, the Centre, in the south and east. In treating coal on the same pithead, and immediately transforming the tar obtained by fuel, it would minimize the handling and transport and regional distribution appears almost providentially organized in advance even.
Besides the bad coals, there are still on French soil and French colonies, peat, oil shale, all materials easily exploitable and immediately fuel convertible.
Every country needs therefore being largely assured, that would prevent the export outside the fuel made in France, the best use all the resources that I have listed and that are national resources.
I have received many requests from foreign countries and then say we will buy all the fuel that France wants to sell well. France becomes exporter of liquid fuel, which turnaround would be and how happy!
And what does it take for it? wanting simply! The raw material is abundant, as we have seen.
The tar extraction processes are known, there is an industry to create on-site at the mine.
With cheap fuel is unknown boom given to engines of all power and all their applications, industrial, agricultural, tourism.
Third fuel test (in flight)
The first two tests are described on this page.
The Company "Air Union" communicates the following note. Since the meeting of CFPAé it was made new tests Makhonine fuel.
During the first trial, he was made a flight 3 hours during which the engine speed varied from 1.840 1.550 towers without the pilot button for admission.
The 21 December flight of the same duration was undertaken but gave less favorable results. The engine speed has decreased gradually until 1.300 towers. On landing, it was found partially clogged filters by solid deposits that are due no doubt to the action of cold fuel. This lays indeed below 5 ° crystals that appear to be of mothballs.
Below 0 °, the fuel thickens then takes into jelly. It is possible that malfunctions detected during the last test are due to this circumstance.
The Air Union Company believes that discovered Mr. Makhonine is of great interest because it demonstrates the ability to use in aircraft engines a fuel that is neither volatile nor inflammable temperature ordinaire.Mais it considers that the use of this fuel requires motor adaptation of details and especially carburetors are made by manufacturers design offices, and carefully checked by experiments on the test bench and in flight in all temperature conditions, pressure and power in order to make the use of this fuel as secure as that of gasoline.
Failing to proceed in this manner, it might be exposed to such serious and more frequent accidents than those to be avoided. Given the dual advantage of this in perspective plane security, and the point of view of producing a national fuel from coal tar, the Air Union Company wishes that the official services, invite at the earliest manufacturers to achieve this adaptation.
Use of this fuel will also be in operation when the manufacturer can provide consistency guarantees its composition, as perfect as those currently required for the various grades of gasoline used in aircraft.
Therefore methods to control this composition must of necessity be developed by the technical services, before the use of this fuel can be considered (sic) routinely in the air transport companies.