Energy in China: weakness of its economy


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China wants to diversify its energy sources

China, which continues its economic and demographic development will be the biggest polluter on the planet term

The International Energy Agency estimates that China and India together will exceed the United States (first polluter) to 2015.
While environmental management still remains a problem in China opaque as evidenced the recent pollution of the Songhua River benzeneThis country is turning increasingly to renewable energy as a solution to extra development.

China: a new energy chasm ...



Recall that China is undoubtedly one of the most dynamic countries in the world with a growth in 9 2004% and a population that represents nearly 20% of humanity.
China, which is not required to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases is now the second largest consumer of oil after the United States. It is also the largest producer and the world's largest consumer of coal, one of the most polluting sources of energy, fueling almost 70% of its energy needs.
« La Chine est déjà le premier pollueur dans certains domaines comme les émissions de dioxyde de soufre. Globalement, elle est aujourd’hui à la seconde place, mais elle devrait passer devant les Etats-Unis d’ici dix ans », estime le professeur Gérald Fryxell, spécialiste du développement durable à la China European international Business School à Shanghai. Il ajoute d’ailleurs – un problème que connaissent les sociétés industrialisées – : « la Chine peut toujours réduire la proportion de pétrole et de charbon dans ses sources d’énergie, elle continuera malgré tout à en consommer davantage », affirme Gérald Fryxell. En effet, la consommation ne cesse d’augmenter, que ce soit en France où la population est vieillissante ou en Chine ou elle augmente considérablement vu la taille actuelle de sa population…

... Which relies heavily on coal

Les Etats-Unis, l’Australie, la Chine, l’Inde et la Corée du sud ont révélé le 28 juillet 2005 l’existence d’un projet alternatif au protocole de Kyoto. Cette alliance, baptisée « Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean development and Climate » a également pour objectif final la diminution des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) afin d’atténuer le changement climatique en cours. Cependant, les moyens qui seront mis en place privilégient la mise en place de technologies propres et avancées autour de l’exploitation du charbon.
« Nous pensons que le plus important pour la Chine est de rendre son charbon propre avec des procédés comme la gazéification », renchérit Emiliano Cecchini, chef de projet du Programme de coopération sino-italien pour la protection de l’environnement, basé à Shanghai. 650 millions d’euros seront d’ailleurs investis pour réduire les émissions de dioxyde de soufre qui résultent de la combustion du charbon.

Chinese cities are affected by pollution with sulfur dioxide

A recent study by the China Institute of Environmental Sciences and Tsinghua University, on 338 Chinese cities where air quality is measured, almost two thirds (63,5%) have an air pollution level considered as moderate or severe, the most affected areas being the south and south-west.
sulfur dioxide emissions are growing rapidly in China, particularly because of the significant low quality coal combustion or use antiquated techniques in power plants. The sulfur dioxide emissions totaled 6,6 2002 million tonnes and reach 12,86 2005 million tonnes in if they continue to grow at current rates, the study found. In total, 30% of China suffers from acid rain.
The European Space Agency (ESA) showed early September 2005 on a map produced by Envisat, the magnitude of the nitrogen dioxide pollution (NO2) above Beijing and northeast China. This is actually the biggest cloud of pollution in the world result of the dramatic economic growth in China over the past decade.
Nitrogen oxides are massively from cars and stationary combustion sources such as power plants for electricity production, heating plants, heavy industries, forest fires or incineration plants. NOx are causing acid deposition with SO2 and involved in photochemical pollution by generating the production of tropospheric ozone which is a mortality factor.

Towards energy diversification

However, China wants to reduce some of its reliance on coal extraction which also cost the lives each year thousands of miners. The China Energy Research Institute expects a reduction 10 15% by years. And, recently, China Daily had reported that construction of new coal plants was now banned in Beijing, Shanghai and 21 provincial capitals.

Pour ce faire, la Chine a annoncé début novembre, un investissement de 180 milliards de dollars pour développer les énergies renouvelables et porter de 7% à 15% leur part dans la consommation énergétique globale en 2020. « La Chine encourage les entreprises à utiliser d’autres sources d’énergie, telles que l’énergie solaire ou éolienne, en allégeant certaines taxes », explique Han Zhengguo, analyste pour le groupe financier Haitong Securities à Shanghai.

Finally, China is also investing in nuclear power with the support of France since by 2020, 40 nuclear plants will be built.


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