chemistry terms in the context of the study of the process pétroléïque Laigret. Definitions by Thierry Saint germs, November 30 2008.
Biochemistry definitions from A to G
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halogen: (Gr. Hals, halos, salt, and gennan, lead) Name given by Berzelius to chlorine family-metals (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine), which can form salts with metals.
Oil : Product of mineral, animal or vegetable, fluid at room temperature and consists, in the first case, with heavy hydrocarbons in the last two, by a combination of mixed glycerides.
hydrocarbon: hydrogen carbide synonymous.
hydrolysis: type of acid-base reaction between water and another body. Salts of an acid or a weak base undergoing, in contact with water, limited hydrolysis, which liberates the corresponding acid and base.
hydroxide: combination of water and an oxide. (Hydroxides have a constitutive formula containing a metal [or a radical in lieu] united with one or more -OH hydroxyl; and sodium hydroxide NaOH and lime Ca (OH) 2.
hydroxyl: Univalent radical OH, which is in the water, hydroxides, oxo acids, alcohols, etc.
iodine: (Gr. Iodine, purple) chemical element 53, 126,9045 I = atomic mass was discovered by Courtois in 1811. It is a gray-black solid, metallic state, crystalline flake orthorombiques of irritating odor.
iodide: Combination of iodine with a single body or compound.
Hydrogen ion: hydrogen atom that has lost its electron and reduces its proton. The properties of the aqueous solution of acid is due to the presence of its ions.
lactic: Said of an alcohol-acid CH3-CHOH-CO2H, which is in the whey in many plants, in various organs of animals, etc.
lipase: (Gr. Lipos, fat). Enzyme that hydrolyses fatty acid esters of high molecular weight.
lipolysis: Destruction of fat.
lugol: strong iodine solution to 1 percent of the codex.
Marinating: Operation of leaving a body in a liquid in an open vessel, to extract those parts which are soluble.
Manne: common name for various edible and sweet training, powdery consistency, which appear quickly in dry places. (The baskets are usually exudates produced by woody plants in reaction to the bite of an insect homopteran.
Pressure gauge: (Greek manos, sparse, and metron, measure). Apparatus for measuring the fluid pressure.
methane: First term CH4 saturated hydrocarbons. (Methane is formed in the decomposition of certain organic materials Natural gas, like Lacq contain up to 98%. Firedamp mines is an explosive mixture of methane and air It is a gas. weak odor, 0,55 density, liquefying in -. 164 ° C. It gives no addition reaction is used in industrial heating and preparation of hydrogen) Syn.. Formène, marsh gas.
methyl: Univalent radical - CH3, which is derived from methyl alcohol by removal of the hydroxide.
methyl: (Gr. Methu, wine) Said of certain derivatives of methane, including alcohol (methanol or methyl alcohol).
oleate: Salt or ester of oleic acid.
oxacid: Acid, the active hydrogen belongs to a hydroxyl group OH.
oxide: (Gk. Oxus, acid) Body resulting from the union of oxygen with a chemical element or a radical.
Carbon monoxide: CO was discovered by Priestley. It is a colorless, odorless gas difficult to liquefy. It burns carbon dioxide or CO2.
peptide: Composed natural or synthetic, formed by the union of a small number of amino acids, the connection being effected by loss of water between the amino group of a molecule and the carboxyl group of the neighboring molecule (peptide bond).
peptone: Polypeptide resulting from the partial hydrolysis of a proteid by enzime.
polypeptide: Biochemistry. Protide formed from several amino acids, the carboxyl group of one being attached to the amino group of another.
potassium: Potassium is the chemical element 19, atomic mass K = 39,1 (kalium). It is a soft solid that the break is brilliant, but tarnishes immediately to oxidation by air.
propionic: (Gr. Prôtos first and pawn bold) Refers to the CH3CH2CO2H acid, higher homologue of acetic acid, and compounds related thereto.
proteid: structure of proteins generic name of more complex than the polypeptides.
protide: nitrogenous organic substances constituting living beings, and formed, at least in part, by a condensation of amino acid of general formula R_CHNH2_CO_OH. (The protein group includes peptides and proteids.)
Radical : Group of atoms being considered for existence in a chemical molecule because it manifests a certain individuality in the reactions.
salification Producing a salt.
saponification: Transformation of fat into soap. By extension. Hydrolysis of esters, amides, nitriles, etc. (The actual hydrolysis is the cleavage of the ester with an amount of alkali sufficient to salify all the acid thus released at the same time as alcohol, it is a rapid and complete reaction.). saponification value, index speaking milligrams of potash (KPH) absorbed 1 g of fat, the content of this body saponifiable compounds. (This index is one of the essential characteristics of natural or synthetic fats.)
fission: Multiplication of a living being by direct fragmentation not followed by growth. Fissiparity opposes the budding or separation of small fragments called to grow and differentiate. In Fissiparous beings, each detached fragment is as large and as differentiated as the remaining stump.
Salt : generic names of chemical compounds resulting from the action of an acid on a base.
silica: (Lat. Flint silisis). SiO2 silicon oxide, which is found in many minerals.
silicon: Metalloid similar to carbon, used in a large number of minerals (silica, silicates), and thereby forming 28% of the earth's crust.
sodium: alkali metal widespread in nature, especially in the state of chloride. 1807 discovered by Davy, sodium is the chemical element No. 11, atomic mass Na = 23,0. This is a soft white solid, which oxidizes rapidly in air and it keeps in vaseline oil. It is highly oxidized and gear, and decomposes water cold.
soda: Sodium hydroxide NaOH. NaOH caustic soda is a white solid melting at 320 ° C, very soluble in water. This is a strong base with many uses.
stearic: Said of a CH3 acid (CH2) 16CO2H contained in the fatty substances in the state of glyceride (stearin)
sulfate: Salt or ether sulfuric acid H2SO4.
Buffer : Buffer system (Biochemistry), name given to a solution whose hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is not substantially modified by the introduction of a base or a strong acid.
labile: Refers to a substance which is destroyed at a higher or lower temperature (such as vitamin D to 120 ° C for example).
Univalent or monovalent: Which has a chemical valency equal to one.
Valencia: combining capacity of a chemical element with one or more atoms of hydrogen.