Petroleum fuels

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Here are the different characteristics of conventional fuels, just keep in mind that no fuel is a pure compound. They are all (with exceptions) a mix of communicable compounds with complementary properties. The definitions of characteristics on definitions of caburants

1) Gasoline (heptane)

Chemical formula:
C7 H16 (approached to 4 7 carbon atoms)

octane:
RON 95 / 98

distillation characteristics:
Interval of about 30 210 ° C to
Starting point 27 ° C

Evaporation temperature:
between room temperature and 215 ° C

Density:
0,755 (approached to 0,72 0,78 15 to ° C)

Flash point:
-40 ° C

Calorific power:
10 500 / 11 300 kcal / kg
7 600 / 8 200 kcal / liter
44 000 kJ / kg

Boiling temperature:
-30 To 190 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
300 °

Steam pressure:
45-90 ° C to 37,8kPa

Vapor density:
3 4 to (air = 1)

Viscosity:
0,5 to 0,75mm² / s 20 ° C

2) The gas oil (cetane): diesel, gas oil or diesel

Chemical formula:
C21 H44 (approached to 12 22 carbon atoms)

Cetane Number:

distillation characteristics:
initial point> = 150 ° C
distillation interval to 150 380 ° C

Evaporation temperature:
between 180 and 370 ° °

Density:
0,845 (approached to 082 1,85 15 to ° C)

Flash point:
55 ° C

calorific power:
43 000 kJ / kg

Cold resistance:
- 5 ° C diesel is troubled

- 15 ° C limit of filterability

- 18 ° C pour point

These are the paraffins contained in the gas oil that transform into crystals when the temperature falls

Mass suffering:
- Before the 1 1996 October she was 2%

- Since October 1 1996 it is less than 0,05%

Boiling temperature:
- -180 To 360 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
250 °

Steam pressure:

Vapor Density:
> 5 (air = 1)

Viscosity:
<7mm² / s 40 ° C

3) Kerosene: (also called "kerosene")

Density:
0,77 to 0,83

Calorific power:
43 105 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C10 of H22 to C14 H30

Cold resistance:
-50 ° C

4) LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

octane:
RON 110

Composed of 50 50% butane and propane% (the proportions are changing according to the seasons 60 40 for the summer)

Chemical formula:
C3H 8, C4H10

Density:
2,3555 (approached to 0,51 0,58 15 to C [liquid])

Flash point:
<-50 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
> 400 ° C

Steam pressure:
4 15 bars ° C

Steam pressure:
= <1550kPa to 40 ° C

Density:
> = 530kg / m3 to 15 ° C

evaporation rate:
1 the atmospheric pressure in liquid generates steam around the 255

Calorific power:
11 000 / 11 850 kcal / kg
6 050 / 6 480 kcal / liter

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Storage Pressure:
4 5 to bars

olfactory detection additive:
mercaptan

Advantages:
Reduction compared to gasoline or diesel engine:
- 30à 65% of NOx and HC
- To 40 75% CO
- 15% of CO2
No particles
elevé more octane to a reduction in consumption on optimized engines (rarely)
It is a "waste" of refining or petroleum extraction valorized.

5) NGV (Natural Gas)

Chemical formula:
CH4 (essentially methane, 80% to 97%)

Octane RON:
120

Ignition temperature:
650 ° C

Aspect:
naturally colorless and odorless (odor it is added by chemical addition)

Disadvantage:
GVN is stored in the gaseous state. It is compressed under a pressure of 200 bars at the time of the vehicle tank filler.
This filling can last from hours to 1 7 hours of the equipment used.

Advantages:
50% less CO and HC, no sulfur or particles.
elevé octane for improved engine performance.
Stocks are higher than those of crude oil.

6) The Butane:

Density: 2,703

Calorific power:
45 600 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C4H10

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Boiling temperature:
-5 ° C

liquefaction pressure 15 ° C:
1,5 bar

Auto ignition temperature:
510 ° C

Octane:
95

approximate composition of commercial butane:

N-butane & isobutane *:
94,8%

Propane:
4,2%

butene:
1%

methyl-propane (formerly iso butane)

7) Propane:

Density:
2,008

Calorific power:
46 300 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C3H8

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Boiling temperature:
-42 ° C

liquefaction pressure 15 ° C:
7,5 bar

Calorific power:
1 kg: 12,78 13,8 kW kW

M1 3: 23,9 25,9 kW kW

Auto ignition temperature:
490 ° C

Octane:
100

approximate composition of commercial propane

Propane:
94,9%

N butane & isobutane *:
2,39%

Ethene & Ethane:
2%

Propene (C3H6):
0,89%

butene:
0.039%

methyl-propane (formerly iso butane)

8) Additives:

2 major classes of additives for gasoline:
- Improvers octane
- Detergents (permanent maintains clean state of the intake circuit limits the maladjustments that may be caused by dirt)

Tetraethyl lead:
(Used to increase the octane)

chemical formula:
Pb (C2H5) 4

origin:
4 5 bringing additive to gasoline octane point

associated pollutant:
The lead:
(Used to increase the octane rating, and its properties lubrifiait the valve stem and protect the seat by deposits)
- Was abolished in January 1 2000 because of pollution.

methyl:
(Used to increase the octane)
used for unleaded gasoline

tert-butyl ether:
(Used to increase the octane)
used for unleaded gasoline

 

More:
- petroleum products and fossil fuels Forum
- Petroleum fuels
- Equation combustion and CO2
- Synthesis download on the main properties of fuels
- conventional petroleum fuels

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