BedZED: the first eco-village is born
In England, developers committed to sustainable development have for the first time created an ecological village driver without use of fossil fuels and without rejection CO2. A fascinating experience, from Switzerland to South Africa, already exports. In France, under the leadership of WWF, of public housing programs should follow this model.
At the time, France is increasingly alert communities about climate change, a pilot experiment conducted in Britain proves that practice sustainable development on the scale of a city can . In 2000, an ecological village, including 82 2 300 m2 housing and offices and shops, was born in the southern suburbs of London, Sutton.
Nicknamed Bedzed (for Beddington Zero Energy Development), this eco-village, unique in its kind, wants to demonstrate that "the habitat can be thought and built without degrading the environment. "To achieve this goal, Bedzed designers seem to have realized a gigantic lifecycle analysis (LCA), which consists of evaluating the environmental impact of a product's life, from its realization to its disposal ... or recycling. But in the case of BedZED, it is usually the life of a village (housing construction, energy needs, travel, professional activities, life social, waste management, etc.) whose environmental, economic and social impact has been thought and evaluated. To come to the eco-design of this new kind of place of life.
The first principle applied to sustainable BedZED is that of the local loop: use up to local resources, reuse and recycling (limited transportation, local economic development and strengthened cultural identity prévservée). Here 90% of materials come under 50 km radius (certified wood) and are often recycled (old rails railway ...). The housing design is thought in terms of energy efficiency and quality of life: reinforced insulation, sunshine, terraces and garden, ventilation system with heat recovery ... The use of renewable energy and the optimization of natural resources is BedZED project a great example of actual size that can be a reasonable use for resources: recovery of rainwater for toilets, electrical and thermal energy from biomass (waste wood), and the recovered heat photovoltaic panels on the facades. The electricity produced can even recharge 100% electric vehicles available to share with people.
The movements are reduced, since workspaces are available, that local shops have been created, and a fresh delivery system from the region exists.
Finally, this streamlining allows BedZED 50% to reduce its ecological footprint. To give an order of magnitude compared to conventional homes, the heating is reduced 90% of the total energy consumption 70%, and the volume of waste 75%.
Sustainable habitat "easy, affordable and attractive"
BedZED was designed by the Peabody Foundation, London's largest housing charity, in collaboration with the highly active environmental group BioRegional Development Group and architect Bill Dunster, renowned for its interest in solar homes . A trio with simple and ambitious goals, as explained by Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud of WWF International, an association that supported the project from the outset, and Pooran Desai, director of BioRegional: "(...) Making the concept of sustainability something easy, attractive and cheaper. The overall objective was to enable people to live sustainably in an ecological footprint of two hectares, the average environmental space available per person in the world. And this without sacrificing the comfort and benefits associated with a modern and mobile lifestyle. "
A bet seems to have been won, because BedZED is not reserved for an elite "bobo" or extremist militants. More than half of the dwellings were booked by the Peabody Foundation for low-income families, and homes were sold at a price equal to those of the traditional market, with the additional cost of certain facilities being offset by revenues from shops and offices developed in BedZED. Modern comfort is not sacrificed, bathtub and no shower in the bathrooms, electric ovens and stoves, washing machine ... The village is also equipped with community living areas: health center, sports club, games, nursery, cafes, restaurants ...
New villages WWF
BedZED was awarded in July 2000 by the Royal Institute of Builders and Architects (IRCA) and will serve as inspiration for the housing program planned by the English government (1 million homes on 10 years!). South Africa, China and Portugal are building partnerships for construction programs. "All the English regions are committed to a calculation of their ecological footprint and the construction of a macro scenario and a global network is being set up to set up pioneer sites living according to the principles of sustainability demonstrated at BedZED ", welcomes Thanh Nguiem, a volunteer member of the WWF executive board, who created a Franco-British structure to import BedZED's approach in France. In France, WWF is very enthusiastic and is already looking forward to programs to rehabilitate and build low-cost housing according to BedZED's long-term criteria, in partnership with companies (Caisse d'Epargne, Nature & Découvertes, etc.) and major cities (Nantes, Lyon, Lille ...)