Water injection on Citroën Zx-Td

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Presentation of a personal modification by water doping derived from the "Pantone" process and performed on a ZX-TurboDiesel (1.9L, 92 Ch, 220000 km) of 1992 (Conducted between August and April 2002 2004 by Christophe Martz, mechanical engineer and Olivier, technician engine exclusively with private funds)

This achievement was made following the meeting with Olivier wishing to experience the system of water doping on its own ZX Turbo Diesel.

After several months of pre-study (measuring temperature, pressure ...) Olivier got down to realization. The prototype started a few months later.

Since we are dedicated to improving the basic installation, many questions could be answered but many uncertainties remain ... only a real study with laboratory capacity would remove them.

For an overview of the work: over 1000 hours of work spread over 18 months and more than 20 000 messages were exchanged in order to understand better and try to master the system and adapt it to our prototype, this automatically.

Following this page is a presentation of our prototype.

Olivier and Christophe, the 20 May 2004.

Current state of development

Here are some picture of our prototype, click on each photo to enlarge.

1) Principle used for modification. It is a simple injection of "water" in parallel with the conventional power supply circuit, without any modification on the latter.

Scheme from the site

2) Double reactor mounted as a branch from the exhaust stream. Dimensions: 2 21 time / 16 and 14 rod / 300 mm.

3) Interior evaporator preheated by coolant.

4) Double evaporator for making constant.

5) Water tank in the trunk.

6) Overview of the electronic management system (for version "2") realized by automotive relay and various modules.


Following performance from the change (Our interpretation in italics) :

Preliminary, recall test conditions:

Test conditions:
1) Tests carried out on more than 10 000 km. (The uncertainties related to climate variations or driving behavior are excluded.)
2) The system is switched on for about 80% of the path (approximately 50 km) tests. (The rest of the time are the start-up and / or slows)3) testing trip is divided as follows: 1 / highway 5, 1 / city of 5, 2 / 5 of departmental and 1 / 5 small mountains. (These driving conditions are therefore representative of a wide range using the engine of the vehicle. Therefore, they validate the process for most automotive uses.)

Performance installation:

1) motor power (in original, new engine manufacturer data):

-1000 DA m: s 33.63. (34 s)
maximum -Speed: 190 km / h (185 km / h)
- To 0 100 km / h: s 11.43 (12 s)

The performances are slightly better (or substantially equal) to a new engine out of the assembly line. We estimate that approximately 5% gain power / torque.

2) engine Consumption

- Origin (system off): L 7.2 / 100 km
- Amended (system on): L 5.7 / 100 km
- Water consumption: from 1 1.5 to L / 100km according to weather conditions (Following T ° and therefore the humidity)

The increase in consumption is of about 20% (assuming the stored power). We achieve performance HDI type of high pressure diesel injection engines or other for a much lower cost and especially a technology adaptable to existing industrial motors. Which is not the case of HDI technology.

3) Engine Pollution

The only test that we have achieved is the opacity test of midrange without smoke and engine load.

Results: 1.8 / 1.1 m / m, ie 40% discount.
(Made with an approved appliance)

A decrease of 40% of black smoke is directly related to an improvement of the combustion in the engine. The mechanisms related to this improved combustion by injecting water are poorly understood and require further investigation. Indeed, the theory (and practice) would like a water injection (therefore a decrease in room temperature) degrades combustion and therefore the contrary increases black smoke. This is what we can see when we want to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) by injecting water: the rate Nox decrease in unburned but the (so smoke) increases.

The following ?

With bringing superheated water in the engine improves combustion which resulted in a 20% of the sequence of the motor increased yield and a more substantial decrease in pollution. We assume that the same gain (see higher if some of our assumptions are confirmed) is possible on latest engine generation high-pressure direct injection (gasoline or diesel)

The efficiency of the process is therefore validated .... but (given the means of individuals we have) not yet quite mastered in its entirety!

For that we are currently experiencing a second version, fully électronisée and we tried to make independent the maximum settings to better understand the process.

We reasonably believe we reaches the system limits development today with our means of individuals. We are looking for industrial and academic partners wishing to develop applications around water injection in internal combustion engines. Because only industrial means and / or laboratory will go forward, probably to improve the results and in all cases to move towards an understanding of the water injection in heat engines ..

For more information, see additional pages:

- The end report design engineer
- The report Appendices figures
- The figures for pollution
- About Mr Pantone


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